President Trump Addresses Congress Tonight
For details, go here.
Capitol Hill Prayer Partners
P.O. Box 5152
Herndon, VA 20172-1970
"Praying for All in Authority"
Tuesday, February 28, 2017
"Standing Together as One
. . . Under the Cross of Christ"
"Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good." (Romans 12:21)
The First 100 Days
Prayer Resources for The First 100 Days
Tools to Assist in Offering Prayers for President Trump
and his Administration during these First 100 Days
1. 24/7 Prayer Line
Sponsored by the 24/7 National Strategic Prayer Network, you can call this number anytime, day or night, and join other prayer warriors across the nation to pray for the new administration.
The Conference Number is: 712-770-4340
The Access Code is: 543555#
Please dial #6 to mute your phone.
All are welcome to join!
PrayerSurgeNow hosts a weekly call every Saturday morning, beginning at 7:30 a.m. EST. Topics are geared to time-sensitive events happening in our country, and anointed speakers are invited to host each call, bringing insight to intercessors across the nation.
PrayerSurgeNow also hosts other calls throughout the week, as the need arises.
In order to keep pace with their news, please visit their blog at: www.prayersurgenow.blogspot.com, or by going here.
PSN's Conference number is: 712-432-0075
Access Code is: 6149782#
3. Daily Devotions - Sponsored by the AsOne network.
A prayer topic, intercession and Scriptural decrees are posted daily during these First 100 Days. Please go here to find today's devotion.
4. President Trump's Weekly Address:
Friday, February 24, 2017
To view last week's address, please go here.
5. PRAYERS FOR THE PRESIDENT
The First 100 Days and Beyond
A Collection of Prayers by the People:
An Inaugural Gift for President Donald J. Trump
To read this guide to prayer, written by 100 intercessors for each of the President's First 100 Days, please go here.
6. White House Press Briefings
To view each day's press conference,go here.
The videos of these press briefings appear below the video of Inauguration itself.
Focus on Israel
1. Netanyahu: Israel will not allow 'drizzle' of rocket fire from enemies
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Monday reiterated his warning that Israel will not allow any "drizzle" of rocket fire on its territory from enemy entities.
"We respond to all fire at our territory; thus we did today and as such we will do in the future," the premier underscored hours after a projectile launched by terrorists exploded in an open field in southern Israel overnight.
Meanwhile, Defense Minister Avigdor Liberman stated that while Israel has no intention of initiating any military action in Gaza, "we have no intention to continue to absorb drizzles (of rockets out of the Strip)."
"We will not get into a ping-pong situation of fire and counter-fire. I suggest Hamas take responsibility, impose order and calm down," Lieberman said in public remarks to legislators of his Yisrael Beytenu party in Jerusalem.
2. IDF attacks in Gaza in response to rocket fire - YNET News
Israel Air Force fighter jets attacked five Hamas terror targets the Gaza Strip on Monday afternoon in response to a rocket fired from the strip that exploded in open area in the Sha'ar HaNegev Regional Council in the early morning hours.
According to sources in Gaza, meanwhile, the IDF attacked 15 targets across the Gaza Strip-including a military post near the Nuseirat Camp in the center of the strip-with four Hamas wounded in eastern Rafah.
The Gaza Interior Ministry called on civilians to stay away from the sites that were bombed.
3. 'There are 15 terror tunnels under Gaza border' - Israel National News
The State Comptroller will release the report on Operation Protective Edge on Tuesday, two and a half years after the conflict.
Senior officials in the Security Cabinet and elsewhere said today that Hamas currently has at least 15 attack tunnels, and their remarks raised questions about the efficacy of the operation's achievements as declared by the political and security establishment following the 50 day conflict.
4. Palestinian terror leader urges Iran to join 'all-out war' on Israel, then Jordan - Times of Israel
The head of a Palestinian terrorist group in Lebanon said he would like to see Iranian soldiers take part in an "all-out war" to liberate Palestine, and that the future Palestinian conquest would include an invasion of both Israel and Jordan.
Ahmad Jibril, leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, told Hezbollah's Al-Mayadeen TV on February 17 that his group wants "to see the revolutionary fighters from [Iran] in the Galilee." His remarks were translated by watchdog group MEMRI on Friday.
5. Holy Temple Appears on Temple Mount - See For Yourself on Google Maps! [PHOTOS] - Breaking Israel News
According to Google Maps, the Holy Temple has popped up in an entirely unexpected place: the Temple Mount.
Thanks to the efforts of a young Israeli, touring Solomon's Temple is now as easy as typing "Temple Mount" into the Google Maps website. Anyone interested should take advantage of the opportunity today, since the virtual tour has only recently returned from being banned by Google and may be removed again in the near future.
Many Jews are reluctant to visit the Temple Mount, concerned about straying into areas that are forbidden by Jewish law. Elyasaf Libi, a resident of Mount Bracha in Samaria, set out to solve that issue by educating Jews on how to navigate the Temple Mount. Towards that end, he created a 3D virtual tour of the Temple and uploaded it to Google Maps. For good measure, he made two versions: the First and the Second Temple.
The Daily Brief
Every prayer below is presented to our Lord in the Name of Jesus Christ, amen.
1. Trump poised to press 'bold agenda' in first congressional address - Fox News
President Trump is planning to outline an ambitious first-year agenda tackling everything from immigration to infrastructure when he delivers his first address to a Joint Session of Congress Tuesday night, the White House said.
The White House detailed Trump's highly anticipated address on Monday, outlining what will be the president's biggest speech since his inauguration. Press Secretary Sean Spicer said Trump will push a "bold agenda," while another White House official described it as an "optimistic" look toward the next four years. (Read more)
- Lord God, as our new President prepares to address a Joint Session of Congress for his first time tonight, we ask that this would be a new season of true cordiality between these two branches of government -- one that would result in much progress being made in the days ahead for the American people. We ask in Your name, amen.
- "This is the confidence we have in approaching God: that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us-whatever we ask-we know that we have what we asked of him." (I John 5:14,15)
2. Trump's first budget calling for $54B increase in defense spending faces GOP hurdle - Fox News
The White House said Monday that President Trump's upcoming budget will propose a whopping $54 billion increase in defense spending and impose corresponding cuts to domestic programs and foreign aid. The result is that Trump's initial budget wouldn't dent budget deficits projected to run about $500 billion.
"The president will propose and the Congress will dispose," Rep. Charlie Dent, R-Pa., told Politico. "We'll look at his budget, but at the end of the day we in Congress write the appropriations bills, and I am not one who thinks you can pay for an increase in (military) spending on the backs of domestic discretionary programs, which constitute 13 or 14 percent of all federal spending." (Read more)
- Father, we continue to pray that all matters related to next year's budget be resolved peacefully, in Your Name, amen.
- "Again, truly I tell you that if two of you on earth agree about anything they ask for, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven." (Matthew 18:19)
3. Pentagon presenting counter-IS plan to White House - Times of Israel
Defense Secretary Jim Mattis is presenting the White House with a plan to "rapidly defeat" the Islamic State group, a Pentagon spokesman said Monday. The strategy includes significant elements of the approach President Donald Trump inherited, while potentially deepening US military involvement in Syria.
Navy Capt. Jeff Davis said Mattis provided the results of his 30-day strategy review ahead of a Monday afternoon Cabinet-level meeting of the National Security Council. It's unclear if the discussion will include Trump, who said last week his goal is to "obliterate" IS.
Davis said details of the report are classified secret.
"It is a plan to rapidly defeat ISIS," Davis said, using the Pentagon's preferred acronym for the group, which has proven resilient despite losing ground in its strongholds Syria and Iraq. (Read more)
- Father God, we thank You that President Trump is taking such swift action to fulfill one of his major campaign promises: to totally obliterate the threat of ISIS on the global level. Lord, we know that Mr. Trump asked for this plan to be on his desk by the end of this month, and now another goal of his administration is coming to pass. We ask for Your continued wisdom as the President and the military work together to defeat this deadly enemy. In Your name, amen.
- "If any of you lacks wisdom, you should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to you." (James 1:5)
4. Wilbur Ross confirmed as Commerce secretary- Fox News
The Senate voted Monday to confirm billionaire investor Wilbur Ross as secretary of commerce in President Trump's Cabinet.
Ross was approved by a vote of 72-27, with 20 Democrats and Sen. Angus King, I-Maine, joining 51 Republicans to vote "aye." Sen. Johnny Isakson, R-Ga., did not vote due to his ongoing recovery from back surgery.
The Senate later voted 67-31 to move forward on the nomination of Rep. Ryan Zinke, R-Mont., to lead the Interior Department. A final vote on Zinke's confirmation is expected Wednesday.
Ross is the 14th member of Trump's Cabinet to be cofirmed, with seven nominees still to be voted on. (Read more)
- Father, we do thank You for this good report today, and we ask that all other pending nominees for Cabinet Secretary positions be approved quickly, in Your name, amen and amen.
- "You may ask me for anything in my name, and I will do it." (John 14:14)
5. Tom Perez: 'White People NOT Entitled to Protection Under Voting Rights Act' - Gateway Pundit
New DNC Chair, Tom Perez, fits right in with the values of the Democratic party, especially when it comes to victimizing minorities and labeling white people as privileged.
An investigation into Perez revealed extreme views he holds according to A Review of the Operations of the Voting Section of the Civil Rights Division conducted by the Office of the Inspector General Oversight and Review Division in March of 2013. Perez told investigators that white people were not entitled to protection under the Voting Rights Act according to a report from the Washington Free Beacon. (Read more)
- Father, this report about the new leader of the Democrat party is disturbing. We pray that any agenda he or his deputy chairman, Keith Ellison, has will be thwarted by Your Holy Spirit.
- "No weapon formed against you shall prosper, and every tongue which rises against you in judgment you shall condemn." (Isaiah 54:17a)
6. Nevada Lawmaker wants to ban forced microchip implants, markings - WND
Nevada may become the fifth state to pass a law banning the implanting of RFID microchips in humans without their consent. Republican state Sen. Becky Harris introduced a bill in the Nevada legislature that would make it a felony to forcibly implant the tracking devices in any human being, including the mentally impaired.
Harris said she's worried computer chips could pose serious risks to human rights and public health. "This is a completely new issue," Harris said in a statement. "I just want a safety measure in place until we better understand the technology and the reasoning behind people's desire to require implanting chips."
While some critics say there is no need for such legislation because nobody is being forced to have a chip embedded under their skin, the practice is growing in popularity. (Read more)
- Father, we pray Your Holy protection over Your people, that no one will fall for this plan. We ask that the legislation to ban it will pass.
- "And he causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their forehead." (Rev. 13:16)
7. Centuries of Religious Conflict Now on U.S. Soil - WND
After the Sterling Heights City Council agreed to settle a lawsuit with the U.S. Justice Department and allow a third mosque to be built in the city, this time right in the midst of a neighborhood populated by Christian refugees who escaped persecution from Islam, some residents said they planned to move out of the city.
Sterling Heights, Michigan, is home to the nation's second largest community of Chaldean and Assyrian Christians, many of them coming directly from Iraq where their families were the victims of a genocide by ISIS, al-Qaida and other Islamic militants over the past 50 years.
While understandable, picking up and moving in the wake of a mosque approval is exactly the wrong response, say Michigan activists. "This is our city and our country and our community," said Tom Mitchell, a 52-year resident of Sterling Heights who says the council's vote gave him renewed determination to help support his Chaldean neighbors. "To leave would be like giving up on our Constitution, giving up to a culture that doesn't believe in our Constitution and our laws. I tell people to stick it out, get more active but don't move out." (Read more)
- Lord, strength comes when standing up against evil.
- "When the enemy comes in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord will raise up a standard against him." (Isaiah 59:9)
8. Agents detail 'daily' border fence battle, seek post-Obama 'restart' - Fox News
In the tiny Arizona city of Douglas, a Border Patrol surveillance camera is trained on a 10-foot-high fence with Mexico. After a few seconds, footage shows a figure appearing out of nowhere and the fence suddenly opens to allow a pickup truck through. A car follows, and they speed off into adjoining neighborhoods while the makeshift gate slams shut.
The Wild West still has a foothold here, more than 100 years after gunslingers Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday called Douglas home. Only the outlaws are cartels and traffickers. And while President Trump is vowing to step up enforcement and seal off the southern border, agents in Border Patrol say they are still grappling with fallout from the Obama years - which they contend allowed security problems like this to fester.
"We weren't allowed to do our job," Brandon Judd, president of the National Border Patrol Council, the border agents' union, told Fox News. (Read more)
- Lord, we praise You that the Border Patrol is getting a new handle on their job. We pray for Your power to secure our borders from danger.
- "He makes peace in your borders." (Psalm 147:14a)
9. Headstones Vandalized At Jewish Cemetery In Philadelphia - NPR
Philadelphia police say approximately 100 headstones have been damaged at a Jewish cemetery in the northeastern part of the city. The vandalism occurred less than a week after a similar episode in a Jewish cemetery near St. Louis, where more than 150 graves were targeted.
Local police arrived at Mt. Carmel Cemetery Sunday morning after getting a call from a man reporting that the headstones of three of his relatives had been knocked over. A wider search then revealed dozens more headstones had been toppled, in a crime that investigators believe took place Saturday night. WHYY's Bobby Allyn spoke with Shawn Zevit, a Philadelphia rabbi who described the vandalism as "a hateful act, an attempt to create fear and to tarnish the memory of those who have died and attack their dignity."
Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney says authorities are doing all they can to find the perpetrators. "My heart breaks for the families who found their loved ones' headstones toppled," he said in a statement. "Hate is not permissible in Philadelphia." (Read more)
- Father, we ask Your comfort to the families whose hearts are broken over this incident. First and foremost we pray for You to bring the perpetrators to justice. Let the truth be revealed in these incidents, and if they are Anti-Semitism rearing its ugly head, that we pray for You to stamp it out rigorously.
- "Arise, O Lord, in Your anger; lift Yourself up because of the rage of my enemies." (Psalm 7:8)
10. Iran holds naval war games amid rising tensions with U.S. - Yahoo News
Iran launched naval drills at the mouth of the Gulf and the Indian Ocean on Sunday, a naval commander said, as tensions with the United States escalated after U.S President Donald Trump put Tehran "on notice". Since taking office last month, Trump has pledged to get tough with Iran, warning the Islamic Republic after its ballistic missile test on Jan. 29 that it was playing with fire and all U.S. options were on the table.
Iran's annual exercises will be held in the Strait of Hormuz, the Gulf of Oman, the Bab el-Mandab and northern parts of the Indian Ocean, to train in the fight against terrorism and piracy, Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari said, according to state media. Millions of barrels of oil are transported daily to Europe, the United States and Asia through the Bab el-Mandab and the Strait of Hormuz, waterways that run along the coasts of Yemen and Iran. (Read more)
- Lord, during the 1967 War in Israel you brought tanks where there were no tanks. We pray that Iran would see Your heavenly Army and back far away from the United States in fear.
- "And the whole army ran and cried out and fled." (Judges 7:21b)
11. Wary of Trump unpredictability, China ramps up naval abilities - Reuters
The PLA Navy is likely to secure significant new funding in China's upcoming defense budget as Beijing seeks to check U.S. dominance of the high seas and step up its own projection of power around the globe. China's navy has been taking an increasingly prominent role in recent months, with a rising star admiral taking command, its first aircraft carrier sailing around self-ruled Taiwan and new Chinese warships popping up in far-flung places. Now, with President Donald Trump promising a U.S. shipbuilding spree and unnerving Beijing with his unpredictable approach on hot button issues including Taiwan and the South and East China Seas, China is pushing to narrow the gap with the U.S. Navy. "It's opportunity in crisis," said a Beijing-based Asian diplomat, of China's recent naval moves. "China fears Trump will turn on them eventually as he's so unpredictable and it's getting ready." (Read more)
- Lord we apply the Cross of Christ to this tense situation. We speak Shalom peace to both sides, and ask for calm.
- "Depart from evil and do good. Seek peace and pursue it." (Psalm 34:14)
12. Nearly 60 U.S. cities set to shower Trump with patriotic support - WND
Since President Donald Trump's campaign and election, America has repeatedly witnessed vitriolic protests and riots. In June 2016, leftist agitators in San Jose, California, threw eggs and water balloons at Trump supporters, stealing and burning their "Make America Great Again" hats. And after Trump's election victory in November, rioters in Portland, Oregon, smashed windows and pelted police officers with objects. By Inauguration Day, anti-Trump protesters in Washington, D.C., had lit a limousine ablaze and struck cops with rocks and bottles.
But now there's a new, peace-loving, Trump-backing crowd in town - make that in nearly 60 towns across America. It's a patriotic crowd that describes itself as "the heart and soul of America." And this crowd is pushing back with a series of Spirit of America rallies scheduled for Feb. 27 and March 4. (Read more)
- Father, we thank you for these rallies that will provide great encouragement to our President. In the midst of great darkness and negativity, these will bring light.
- "Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness and reveal the counsels of the hearts; and then each one's praise will come from God." (1 Corinthians 4:5)
The Daily Jot
Tuesday, February 28, 2017
The rancid press and the void of truth
A wise man once told me to never pick a fight with a man who buys his ink by the barrel, yet this is exactly what President Donald Trump has done, or has he? In reality, it was the press that picked a fight with the American people and Trump is standard-bearer for those who have been lied to, massaged, brainwashed by a decided socialist news media against all things American. From the news media's viewpoint, unless it's socially just, it's wrong, and all things are socially unjust, especially if they have anything to do with common sense and traditional values. Think of the foul-mouthed, bombastic approach that has been taken. Yet, Trump is being blamed openly by the media for what they call self-inflicted wounds.
At CPAC, Trump explained: "A few days ago I called the fake news the enemy of the people. And they are. They are the enemy of the people. Because they have no sources, they just make 'em up when there are none. I saw one story recently where they said, "Nine people have confirmed." There're no nine people. I don't believe there was one or two people...I know who they talk to. There were no nine people... They make up sources. They're very dishonest people. In fact, in covering my comments, the dishonest media did not explain that I called the fake news the enemy of the people. The fake news. They dropped off the word "fake." And all of a sudden, the story became the media is the enemy."
During the very early days of the Reagan Administration, I was a Washington, DC correspondent for a major newswire. I shared office space with many other news entities. Often at the end of the day, the correspondents would sit around the office having a drink and talk about their news stories, essentially comparing notes. I learned from listening to those discussions that unnamed sources were sometimes, if not often, the journalists themselves speculating on various news events. One time, I spoke up about a story they knew I was working on exclusively. I purposely misled them. The next day, it showed up on the front page of the Washington Post, quoting me as a "source close to the story." Of course, it was totally wrong information and these old salts were quite surprised when my story broke with the real news.
Fake news is not new to this generation. It is a staple of lazy reporters with agendas. They have been doing it for generations. The problem we have today is that reporters have been trained to believe that their leftist beliefs are the truth and all things must be measured against their particular truth. We therefore have a media that just writes stories from the lens of socialism. It's generally fake news. Most of what you read and see is twisted. When a free press is dedicated to an agenda, it is part of the problem, not the solution. Trump is right to try to hold accountability. We as citizens must also hold accountability. How? Measure it against the Holy Scriptures. In John 17:17, Jesus prayed the Father to "Sanctify them through thy word; thy word is truth." Find the baseline of events in the word and discern truth properly. It will set you free.
Have a Blessed and Powerful Day!
President Trump Addresses Congress Tonight
President Trump's First Joint Address to Congress
President Donald J. Trump will be delivering his first address to a Joint Session of Congress on Tuesday, February 28, 2017. Be sure to tune in as the President will be sharing his vision for the country.
When: Tuesday, February 28, 2017, at 9 p.m.
Where: The United States Capitol in the House Chamber, also known as the "Hall of the House of Representatives."
Who: The President will address Members of both the House of Representatives and Senate in his first address to a Joint Session of Congress.
The Speech: President Trump is keeping the tradition of previous Presidents by delivering a formal address to a Joint Session of Congress during his inaugural year, and will deliver his first State of the Union address in 2018. The President will deliver his speech from the Speaker's rostrum.
How to watch: The address will be streamed live at http://www.whitehouse.gov
How to participate: Follow along live on Twitter @WhiteHouse and @POTUS for real-time information before, during and after the speech. The speech will also be live streamed at facebook.com/WhiteHouse.
"This will be an opportunity for the people and their representatives to hear directly from our new President about his vision and our shared agenda." - Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, Paul D. Ryan.
For more information please go here.
More Daily Features
The Persecuted Church
"Remember the prisoners, as though in prison with them, and those who are ill-treated, since you yourselves also are in the body." (Hebrews 13:3)
Please visit the website for International Christian Concern to lift up prayers for the persecuted around the world, every day. Their link is: www.persecution.org -- or go here to connect. Thank you for interceding for our brothers and sisters who are suffering in Asia, the Islamic World, and the Far East.
COME, THOU ALMIGHTY KING
Come, Thou almighty King, Help us Thy name to sing, help us to praise! Father all glorious, o'er all victorious, Come and reign over us, Ancient of Days!
Jesus, our Lord, arise,
Scatter our enemies, and make them fall;
Let Thine almighty aid our sure defense be made,
Our souls on Thee be stayed; Lord, hear our call.
Come, Thou incarnate Word, Gird on Thy mighty sword, our prayer attend! Come, and Thy people bless, and give Thy Word success, Spirit of holiness, on us descend!Come, holy Comforter, Thy sacred witness bear in this glad hour. Thou who almighty art, now rule in every heart, And ne'er from us depart, Spirit of power!
To Thee, great One in Three, Eternal praises be, hence, evermore. Thy sovereign majesty may we in glory see, And to eternity love and adore!
"I heard what sounded like a great multitude, like the roar of rushing waters, and like loud peals of thunder, shouting: "Hallelujah! For our Lord God almighty reigns." (Revelation 19:6)
Please go here.
About the Author:
Words: Charles Wesley
Music: Felice de Giardini
Signs and Wonders
Guatemala's Volcano of Fire erupts
Guatemala's Volcano of Fire erupted Saturday (Feb 25), spewing lava and sending up plumes of ash that rained down on nearby communities and could eventually reach the capital, civil protection authorities said.
The Volcan de Fuego, one of the country's three active volcanos, is located about 45km southwest of the capital Guatemala City. It was the volcano's second eruption this year.
David de Leon, spokesman for the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction, said the volcanic activity later stabilised and fell within the normal range after an eruptive phase that lasted 13 hours.
The rumbling 3,763-m-high volcano registered a powerful eruption from 11:28 pm Friday (1:28pm Saturday Singapore time).
In the afternoon, explosions generated ash columns 4,500m above sea level, 500m less than in the morning. The longest of three lava flows so far stretched 1,600m.
Although the ash could travel as far as Guatemala City, it has not yet reached the capital, instead affecting populations in the four departments near the volcano.
Earlier, it pumped out a series of moderate and strong explosions, according to the National Institute of Seismology, Volcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology. (AFP) Read more.
"There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars. On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea." (Luke 21:25)
The Good News Corner
How Solving This Ancient Mystery is Bringing Jews and Christians Together
(Israel) - [CBN News] The Vatican and Rome's Jewish community are teaming up to celebrate a symbol of Judaism depicted on one of the world most famous historical artifacts, but lost to the world for 2,000 years.
The menorah was a seven-branched candelabra made of solid gold that served as one of the sacred vessels in the Holy Temple.
In 70 A.D., the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and looted the temple of its treasure, including the menorah, bringing many of the artifacts back to Rome.
This triumphant procession is depicted on the Arch of Titus in Rome.
The location of that menorah has been the subject of intense speculation for centuries as it is both historically and culturally important.
"That Old Country Church"
The Bible Readathon
Our Bible Readathon Continues
"Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path." (Psalm 119:105)
We are now reading the Word of God every night from midnight to 6:00 a.m. EST. We are reading through the whole Word, from Genesis to Revelation, and beginning again in Genesis when finished.
Our numbers of readers continues to grow over time. All are welcome to join!
The access code is: 350430#. Please call at any time from midnight to 6:00 a.m. EST. WELCOME!
[Note: we are reading from these versions of the Scripture: King James, New King James, New American Standard, and NIV.]